General Franco (German Edition)

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All the benefits of Premium Digital plus: Convenient access for groups of users Integration with third party platforms and CRM systems Usage based pricing and volume discounts for multiple users Subscription management tools and usage reporting SAML-based single sign on SSO Dedicated account and customer success teams. These historians also argue that Eichmann was opposed to sending massive numbers of Jews to Spain.

I do not fully agree with either of these two points. I argue instead that the Nazi offer affected hundreds of thousands more. It was in this context that the offer to Franco was made. The fact that the correspondence between Berlin and Madrid makes explicit reference to areas in which Ashkenazis were much more numerous than Sephardim suggests that the offer may actually have included many more than just those Jews of Sephardic origin who possessed Spanish papers. Actual genealogy, in other words, mattered little. If this assumption is true, then Hitler and Franco were talking, at the very least, about hundreds of thousands of individuals.

What about Eichmann? My research suggests that Eichmann simply was not in a position to oppose a state directive coming from Hitler and endorsed by Himmler. Eichmann was an efficient administrator in charge of logistics at the Department of Jewish Affairs who, when so ordered by Himmler, did not object to negotiating with the Allies I am referring to the Joel Brand case, which I covered for the Vanguardia as well.

Eichmann obeyed authority blindly and would obviously have sent the Jews wherever they told him to. The official documentation left behind by the Nazi regime leaves no room for doubt that Franco was treated as a friend, a very special ally of the Third Reich. So much so that the Axis could be said to have run from Berlin, to Rome, to Madrid. But when the Nazis offered Franco the chance to take on the European Jews, the regime at first did not even bother responding.

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This total lack of reply surprised the Nazis, bureaucratic and precise as they were. They promptly repeated their offer and even extended the deadline in hopes of receiving an official reply from Spain. Ironically, Franco and his embassy in Berlin did not hesitate to claim the property and monetary assets of the deported—alleging that the deportees from Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxemburg were in fact proper Spanish citizens.

Was Franco then just another Nazi who should have been tried at Nuremberg for complicity in the genocide? The underlying idea was simple: Any enemy of Germany was an enemy of Spain. The Nazi offer with regard to the European Jews generated an avalanche of telegrams, verbal notes, and other documents. From on, the discussion about the fate of the Jews generated no less than a dozen official documents per day, between Spain and Germany.

Here are the Nazis:. The special treatment of foreign Jews is unjustified given their behavior and reasons of military security.

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The same is true for individual groups in the Reich and foreign Jews in the Protectorate. This is why it is the intention to submit all the Jews in the above-mentioned territories to the existing anti-Jewish measures starting April 1 of this year, which includes identification, internment, and then expulsion. These measures also affect a certain number of Jews with Spanish nationality. I request that you contact the Spanish government and inform it of the planned measures.

For reasons of courtesy we are informing the government before we move to give instructions. Until March 31 they will be able to repatriate Jews with Spanish nationality from the aforementioned territories under German jurisdiction. The German offices will give the necessary exit permits as soon as they have the corresponding entry visa.


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Corroboration for individual cases is reserved. After March 31 there will no longer be special treatment. Even clearer seems the telegram that Hans Von Moltke, the ambassador of the Third Reich in Madrid, sent the Foreign Ministry in Berlin on January 28, , in which the German diplomat specified that Spain was already aware of the limits imposed by the Nazis on the rescue of the Jews.

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There was no room for misunderstanding:. Today the Spanish Foreign Ministry has been informed, through the delivery of written documentation, that the Spanish government has until March 31 the possibility of repatriating those Jews of Spanish nationality…who find themselves in territories under German jurisdiction. From April 1 on, and without exceptions, these Jews, who until now enjoyed special treatment, will be subject to all the existing measures against the Jews. In the personal opinion of the director, Spain will not allow Jews of Spanish nationality to enter Spain.

In this context he asks if it would be possible to expel these Jews to third countries, especially to Turkey, from which they tend to originate. He was informed that, in the opinion of this Embassy, that possibility does not exist, so that they will either be repatriated to Spain or submitted to the existing rules. We will keep you informed. This time, the undersecretary of the German government was copied.

Caudillo, if your struggle against the elements of destruction in Spain was successful, it was only because of the democratic opponents forced to be cautious by attitude of Germany and Italy. You will be forgiven, Caudillo, but never for this victory! Just as little does England think of letting you remain for a long period in North Africa opposite Gibraltar-as soon as she is once again in a position of power.

The Spanish seizure of the Tangier zone would in such a case-and this is my deepest conviction, Caudillo-only be a passing intermezzo. England, and probably America too, will do everything, to render this entry into the Mediterranean in the future even more secure under their dominion than up to now. It is my most heartfelt conviction that the battle which Germany and Italy are now fighting out is thus determining the future destiny of Spain as well.

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Only in the case of our victory will the present regime continue to exist. Should Germany and Italy lose this war, however, then any future for a really national and independent Spain would be impossible. I have thus been striving to convince you, Caudillo, of the necessity in the interests of your own country and the future of the Spanish people, of uniting yourself with those countries who formerly sent soldiers to support you, and who today of necessity, are also battling not only for their own existence, but indirectly for the national future of Spain as well.

Now at our meeting we agreed that Spain declare its readiness to sign the Three-Power Pact and to enter the war. In setting the date, periods in the far future were never considered or even mentioned, but instead the conversation always was concerned with a very short time-limit within which you, Caudillo, still believed that you could carry out various economic measures favorable for your country.

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I personally have been skeptical from the beginning about the hope of receiving very soon more real economic benefits for Spain. England indeed has no thought at all of really helping Spain! England is only endeavoring to postpone the Spanish entry into the war, to put it off in order in this way continually to increase her distress and thus to be able finally to overthrow the Spanish Government of that time.

But even if England were about to think otherwise, in an impulse toward some kind of sentimentality never present in British history up to now, she could not really help Spain under any conditions. She is absolutely not in the condition even in transportation alone to aid another country in a time in which she herself has already been forced to the most rigorous retrenchments in her standard of living.

And the need for transport space will as the months go by not decrease but instead will get more and more serious. In spite of the fact that I, therefore-as stated-have been thoroughly skeptical about this from the beginning, I nonetheless brought to bear every bit of appreciation for your efforts in at least trying, even before entering the war, to get shipments of foodstuffs into Spain from countries overseas as well. Germany, however, has for her part, declared herself ready to deliver to Spain, immediately after undertaking entrance into the war, food, that is-grain-to as great an extent as possible!

Furthermore, Germany has declared herself prepared to replace the , tons of grain which was waiting in Portugal destined for Switzerland in order that it might benefit Spain immediately. This of course remains contingent upon the final decision for Spain's entry into the war. For about one thing, Caudillo, there must be clarity: We are fighting a battle of life and death and cannot al this time make any gifts. If it should later be asserted that Spain could not enter the war because she received no supplies, that would not be true!

For immediately after settling the entry into the war, a fixed date of which there has as yet been no outward indication at all, Spain would receive the first supplies, that is, , tons of grain. I doubt whether , tons of grain could really have reached Spain from abroad within the same period of time, even if such an inclination had existed.